Home

Endosymbioosi

Endosymbioosi - Wikipedi

Endosymbiosis in prokaryoteschange change source

- 2005. - V. 46. - p. 99-107. Singh S., Parniske M. Activation of calcium - and cal-modulin - dependent protein kinase (CCaMK), the central regulator of plant root endosymbiosis.. Sally Warring. "Cells Living in Cells". ASU - Ask A Biologist. 24 Feb 2016. ASU - Ask A Biologist, Web. 17 May 2020. https://askabiologist.asu.edu/explore/cells-living-in-cells The term endosymbiont describes and organism, which lives inside another organism. These bacteria, which are diazotrophic and live in root nodules of vegetables are also known as Rhizobia Comparative Genomics of Wolbachia-Cardinium Dual Endosymbiosis in a Plant-Parasitic Nematode

Symbiogenesis - Wikipedi

Video: Endosymbiosis - Simple English Wikipedia, the free

Endosymbiosis theory (video) Khan Academ

Vincent, Michael, and Elio focus on endosymbiosis: the rapid spread of Ricekttsia in whitefiles, and a metabolic patchwork in nested symbionts of mealybugs endosymbiosis (plural endosymbioses). (ecology) A condition of living within the body or cells of another organism. endosymbiont. endosymbiotic. endosymbiotic theory. symbiosis. symbiotic The various precursors to modern chloroplasts were all likely some form of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) and, like the chloroplasts, they were originally responsible for their own replication.

Endosymbiotic Theory Ask A Biologis

serial endosymbiosis. Mitochondria and chloroplasts were formerly small prokaryotes living within larger cells. Cells that live within others cells are called endosymbionts Endosymbiosis - The Appearance of the Eukaryotes. Endosymbiosis is the engulfing of a cell by a larger cell, in which the smaller cell evolves into an organelle of the larger cell Museum Guide. Endosymbiosis. Hall of Life—Origins of Life Exhibits It has long been known that mitochondria have their own particular genetic code (mitochondrial DNA) which is independent of the DNA within the nucleus of the cell. The general hypothesis is that the ancestral mitochondrion was simply a cell endowed with special proteins involved in the electron transport chain. This cell was consumed by another one, but instead of destroying it, the larger cell preserved the ATP-producing cell and gained a massive competitive advantage. At first, this would have been considered simply a symbiotic relationship, but the lives of the two cells became so intertwined that they now function as a single entity. Endosymbiosis explains that several key organelles of eukaryotes came from separate single-celled organisms. For example, mitochondria, chloroplasts and possibly other..

Endosymbiosis - RationalWik

So, organelles have their own DNA, and their genes are very similar to the genes of modern-day prokaryotes. They have membranes that look like those of prokaryotes, and they also seem to divide and replicate in similar ways. If a eukaryotic cell loses an organelle, it cannot remake it. Each eukaryote cell has to inherit at least one copy of an organelle from its parent cell if it is to live. That means that the genetic information needed to make the organelles is not found in the DNA of the eukaryotic cell. All of this evidence supports the theory that the organelles came from outside the eukaryotic cell. We think it tells us that they were once free-living prokaryotes. kidzsearch.com > wiki Explore:images videos games. Endosymbiosis occurs when a symbiont lives inside the body or the cells of another organism. It is a very widespread phenomenon in living things

Endosymbiosis - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pptx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online Mitochondria, the important energy generators of our cells, evolved from free-living cells. Click for more detail.During the 1950s and 60s, scientists found that both mitochondria and plastids inside plant cells had their own DNA. It was different from the rest of the plant cell DNA. When scientists looked closer at the genes in the mitochondrial and plastid DNA, they found that the genes were more like those from prokaryotes. This tells us that organelles are more closely related to prokaryotes.

endosymbioosi - Wiktionar

  1. We think we know part of the answer. Eukaryotic cells may have evolved when multiple cells joined together into one. They began to live in what we call symbiotic relationships. The theory that explains how this could have happened is called endosymbiotic theory. An endosymbiont is one organism that lives inside of another one. All eukaryotic cells, like your own, are creatures that are made up of the parts of other creatures.
  2. Tales from the Neutral Zone: Endosymbiosis
  3. All living things are made up of cells. Even though there are many millions of life forms on earth, all of them are made up of only two basic types of cell: prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
  4. endosymbiosis is not valid in Scrabble International Collins CSW Dictionary. endosymbiosis is not valid in Words With Friends
  5. Endosymbiosis. In endosymbiosis, symbionts occur inside the cells or the tissue (intercellular space) of the host

Endosymbiosis is a phenomenon whereby a single-celled organism resides within another cell as part of a mutually beneficial relationship Stream Endosymbiosis by Jolty from desktop or your mobile device. Jolty. Endosymbiosis. 7 years ago7 years ago Endosymbiosis occurs when a symbiont lives inside the body or the cells of another organism. It is a very widespread phenomenon in living things. Examples are: Rhizobia: nitrogen-fixing bacteria which live in root nodules on plants of the pea family endosymbiosis

Endosymbiotic Theor

  1. Endosymbiosis definition: a type of symbiosis in which one organism lives inside the other, the two typically... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples
  2. Endosymbiosis is a form of symbiotic relationship wherein an organism lives in the body or cell of another. The invasive organisms, which are known as endosymbionts, may either occupy the intracellular space or live extracellularly within a host organism
  3. Endosymbiosis. Paul Andersen explains how eukaryotic cells were formed through a process of endosymbiosis
  4. A scientist named Lynn Margulis put all of this information together and published it in 1967. Her paper is called “On the origin of mitosing cells”. Mitosing cells are eukaryotes. Today scientists know her paper is very important, but it took many years before they accepted her theory.

If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.kastatic.org and *.kasandbox.org are unblocked. Endosymbiosis definition is - symbiosis in which a symbiont dwells within the body of its symbiotic partner. Other Words from endosymbiosis. Example Sentences Likewise, chloroplasts are genetically closest to cyanobacteria; they share with cyanobacteria their architecture of photosynthetic system. This system uses two light-collecting systems, Photosystems I and II, to remove electrons from water molecules, energize them, and add them to organic molecules, making them more hydrogenated. Along the way, the electrons' energy can be tapped to assemble ATP. There are many photosynthetic bacteria other than cyanobacteria, but they all use only one light collector, and they extract electrons from hydrogen sulfide, organic molecules, or similar sources. Overall morphology is also comparable. Chloroplasts and most cyanobacteria have internal membrane systems called thylakoids where the light-collecting systems are concentrated. Other endosymbiosis with nitrogen fixers in open oceans include Calothrix in Chaetocerous spp. and UNCY-A in prymnesiophyte microalga.[37] The.. Secondary endosymbiosis was considered just a wild hypothesis, says Sarah Gibbs Researchers say studies of secondary endosymbiosis can clarify the relationships..

Endosymbiosis and its implications for evolutionary PNA

Endosymbiosis occurs when a symbiont lives inside the body or the cells of another organism. It is a very widespread phenomenon in living things.[1] Before these prokaryotes were able to undergo endosymbiosis, they first most likely had to become colonial organisms. Colonial organisms are groups of prokaryotic, single-celled.. Endosymbiosis Web Quest & Discussion. Objective: Research and gain knowledge on 5. What is the evidence scientists have to support endosymbiosis and the evolution of..

Want to discover art related to endosymbiosis? Check out inspiring examples of endosymbiosis artwork on DeviantArt, and get inspired by our community of talented.. Endosymbiosis theory. Endosymbiotic TheoryAmoeba Sisters. Paul Andersen explains how eukaryotic cells were formed through a process of endosymbiosis Rather than being digested by or killing the host cell, the inner cell survived and together they thrived. It’s kind of like a landlord and a tenant. The host cell provides a comfortable, safe place to live and the organelle pays rent by making energy that the host cell can use. This happened a long time ago, and over time the organelle and the host cell have evolved together. Now one could not exist without the other. Today they function as a single organism, but we can still find evidence of the free-living past of the organelles if we look closely. English word endosymbiosis comes from English symbiosis, English endo-. Endosymbiosis etymology history? Endosymbiosis detailed word origin explanation Find helpful customer reviews and review ratings for The Tangled Tree: A Radical New History of Life at Amazon.com. Read honest and unbiased product reviews from our users

Endosymbiosi

Mikrobiologia:endosymbioosi. Kohteesta Tieteen termipankki. Loikkaa: valikkoon, hakuun. Lähdeviittaus tähän sivuun: Tieteen termipankki 10.5.2020: Mikrobiologia:endosymbioosi endosymbiosis. Open Access. Research Article | Molecular Biology and Physiology How important is endosymbiosis? Endosymbiosis explains the origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts, but could it also explain other features of the eukaryotic cell Katso sanan endosymbiosis käännös englanti-portugali. Ilmainen Sanakirja on monipuolinen sanakirja netissä. Suomi, englanti, ruotsi ja monta muuta kieltä

What does endosymbiosis mean? Here you find 10 meanings of the word endosymbiosis. You can also add a definition of endosymbiosis yourself Endosymbiosis is a discovery of great importance as it enables us to understand the evolution of plants and animals cell from the common evolutionary ancestor File:Serial endosymbiosis.svg. From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository. DescriptionSerial endosymbiosis.svg. English: One of many models on where.. Primary endosymbiosis is the process which involves the engulfment of a prokaryote by another living cell. The engulfed organism may be used as an advantage, supplying the larger cell with its products

Endosymbiosis Definition and - Biology Online Dictionar

It has now been firmly established that mitochondria and plastids, the classical membrane-bound organelles of eukaryotic cells, evolved from bacteria by endosymbiosis Meaning of endosymbiosis. Find definitions fo Prokaryotic cells were some of the earliest life forms on earth. They first appear in the fossil record around 4 billion years ago. Prokaryotes were around for a long, long time before eukaryotic cells appeared around 1.8 billion years ago. This has led us to think that the ancestor of all eukaryotic cells was a prokaryote. Answer to Microbiology. Endosymbiosis. How does endosymbiosis help all organisms involved?.

endosymbiosis flashcards and study sets Quizle

Primary Endosymbiosis is the first step in the process that eventually led to the formation of mitochondria and chloroplasts as we know them today Overview of the Process of Endosymbiosis. Evidence for Endosymbiosis. Mitochondria and chloroplasts are both organelles suggested to have arisen via endosymbiosis There are evidences of secondary endosymbiosis i.e. organelle within an organelle. This is quite evident in Chromaveolates. Many unicellular Chromaveolates which had been.. Endosymbiosis - Topic:Biology - Online Encyclopedia - What is what? Much of protist diversity is the result of endosymbiosis, a process in which unicellular organisms..

Endosymbiosis - Biology Socrati

  1. Contribute to ciwemb/endosymbiosis development by creating an account on GitHub
  2. Endosymbiosis: Lynn Margulis. Margulis and others hypothesized that chloroplasts (bottom) evolved from cyanobacteria (top). The Modern Synthesis established that over..
  3. Evidence for endosymbiosis. Biologist Lynn Margulis first made the case for endosymbiosis in the 1960s, but for many years other biologists were skeptical
  4. Weird Science: Serial Endosymbiosis. The prokaryotic cells that live inside eukaryotic cells are called endosymbionts. Endosymbiosis is a term used to describe two..
  5. ..The evolution of the Calvin cycle from prokaryotic to eukaryotic chromosomes: a case study of functional redundancy in ancient pathways through endosymbiosis // Curr Genet
  6. It’s good to be friendly with your neighbors, right? Individuals and communities do better if they help each other out. Cooperation isn’t just important for humans; without a bit of interaction with neighbors, life as we know it would not exist.
  7. Endosymbiosis is, in Margulis' words, a 'topological arrangement', indicating that The mechanism of primary endosymbiosis is envisioned as phagocytosis of a bacterium (or..

In the field of evolutionary biology, endosymbiosis is the hypothesis that the larger, more complex organelles within the cell actually came to be by one cell ingesting another. Specifically, those organelles are the chloroplast and the mitochondria.. Lipid: a building block of life (molecule) made from smaller pieces (fatty acids). There are several kinds of lipids - fats, waxes, sterols,... more Find out all about Endosymbiosis : meaning, pronunciation, synonyms, antonyms, origin, difficulty, usage index and more. Only at Word Panda dictionary

Endosymbiosis provides an explanation for the origins of DNA-containing organelles. The term endosymbiosis refers to the relationship where a symbiont lives within the host As early as 1883, botanist Andreas Schimper was looking at the plastid organelles of plant cells using a microscope. He watched the plastids divide and noticed something odd. The process looked very similar to the way some free-living bacteria divided.

Endosymbiosis Endosymbiosis is a mutually beneficial relationship between a host organism and an internal associate organism A further twist has been proposed by Hyman Hartman: the "chronocyte" hypothesis. He has identified several "Eukaryote Signature Proteins", which do not have close relatives in either eubacteria or archaebacteria; several of them are involved in various eukaryote-specific features, like the eukaryotic cytoskeleton and internal signaling (calmodulin, inositol, etc.). He also proposes that the chronocyte had had a RNA genome instead of a DNA one, thus making it a relic of the proposed RNA world. [Conférence] A. HEDDI -Endosymbiosis as a source of immune innovation Conférence : Symbiose et cohabitation Lien de la conférence : http://www.acade..

Briefly explain the theory of serial endosymbiosis. List the four supergroups of Eukaryotes and give one example of each. Name the two groups of Algae, which are believed to be.. Mitochondria and chloroplasts were apparently acquired only once each. Mitochondria are genetically most closely related to alpha-proteobacteria like Rickettsia; they even have similar respiratory chains. This part takes electrons from food molecules, extracts energy from them, and then combines them with oxygen atoms and hydrogen ions, making water. The energy is then used to string together phosphates to form the energy intermediate ATP. Endosymbiont theory is the idea that eukaryote cells arose in evolution by the fusion of previously free-living protists (prokaryotes).[2]p143 The theory was first suggested by the Russian botanist Mereshkovsky in 1905.[3] The nature of lichens had been worked out;[4] mitochondria and chloroplasts had been seen in cells,[5] and their similarity to bacteria noted.[6] The theory was initially dismissed, but was re-examined when more was known about cell biology.[7] @article{Keeling2011EndosymbiosisBS, title={Endosymbiosis: Bacteria Sharing the Load}, author={Patrick J. Keeling}, journal={Current Biology}, year={2011}, volume={21}..

Find and follow posts tagged endosymbiosis on Tumbl

Feb 27, 2019 - Explore ghkageyama's board Endosymbiosis, followed by 873 people on Pinterest. See more ideas about Lynn margulis, Cytochrome c and Acetyl coa endosymbiosis: A symbiotic association in which one or more organisms live inside another, such as bacteria in human intestines

endosymbiosis (Q2456754). From Wikidata. Jump to navigation Jump to search. Also known as. English. endosymbiosis. No description defined We know that multiple membranes surround the organelles too. If we look at the molecules of those membranes, they look like the membranes that surround modern day free-living prokaryotes.

The phenomenon of endosymbiosis, or one organism living within another, has deeply impacted the evolution of life and continues to shape the ecology of countless species Define endosymbiosis. endosymbiosis synonyms, endosymbiosis pronunciation, endosymbiosis translation, English dictionary definition of endosymbiosis. n.. Endosymbiosis definition. Definition of the word Endosymbiosis on the PoetrySoup.com Dictionary and Thesaurus Foro gratis : Gotta Pwn 'Em All Gotta Pwn 'Em All Endosymbiosis. Endosymbiosis. Ver mensajes sin respuesta. Foro Not only mitochondria but also chloroplasts can become vestigial. Apicomplexan protists like Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum contain an organelle called the apicoplast, which makes fatty acids, and which has its own genome. Sequencing of this genome reveals it to be a vestigial chloroplast, one that no longer photosynthesizes.

Endosymbiosis - definition of endosymbiosis by The Free

Endosymbiosis. 5:33. Endosymbiotic Theory. Endosymbiosis. Bozeman Science 259.961 views6 years ago Источник: Nick Lane. Serial endosymbiosis or singular event at the origin of eukaryotes? // Journal of Theoretical Biology Endosymbiont. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (Redirected from Endosymbiosis). Jump to navigation Jump to search The genomic apparatus and multiple membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts are reasonably interpreted as vestigial features. They have only limited function and a structure that suggests an origin from more-highly-developed features. Endosymbiosis: Living Together. How Do Cells Eat? Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes. Read more about: Cells Living in Cells. Endosymbiosis: Living Together

Endosymbiosis. Group Library The precursor to the mitochondrion was likely an aerobic bacterium that lived inside a large anaerobic cell.[1] Although the lives of the two were independent, they did share a common channel for reproduction (that's important… see "Endosymbiotic theory and symbiosis", below). This is Endosymbiosis by Wendy Bumpass on Vimeo, the home for high quality videos and the people who love them Home Endosymbiosis News. Endosymbiosis. Biology January 15, 2012 The earliest living neighbors on our planet were all single-celled creatures. Some of the neighboring single-cells joined and began living together as one organism, one inside the other. This partnership was so successful that it led to the evolution of many of the life forms on our planet, including humans.

Endosymbiosis Definition of Endosymbiosis at

Lynn Margulis revolutionized cell biology by discovering mitochondrial endosymbiosis, but was also a 9-11 truther and doubted HIV caused AIDS Endosymbiotic theory accounts for the origin of two centrally important organelles: the mitochondria and the chloroplasts.

Endosymbiosis Encyclopedia

..are able to represent data in a way that is not strictly tree like, due to reticulate processes such as the formation of hybrid species, lateral gene transfer, and endosymbiosis events Historically, conceptualizations of symbiosis and endosymbiosis have been pitted against Darwinian or neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory. In more recent times, Lynn Margulis has.. Sally Warring. "Cells Living in Cells". ASU - Ask A Biologist. 24 February, 2016. https://askabiologist.asu.edu/explore/cells-living-in-cells Investigating Bacterial Endosymbiosis in Leptogorgia virgulata Using a Molecular and SEM Approach Endosymbiosis is a see also of symbiogenesis. is that endosymbiosis is (ecology) a condition of living within the body or cells of another organism while symbiogenesis is..

Endosymbiotic Theory: How Eukaryotic Cells Evolv

Model systems for the study of endosymbiosis in action are also described, and the hypothesis that symbiogenesis may contribute to the generation of new species is.. Endosymbiosis isn't just reserved for a theory that explains a past event in ancient history. Endosymbiosis is actually happening today with many other kinds of organisms There is evidence that symbiosis happened between ancient bacteria to produce the double-membrane class known as gram-negative bacteria.[13] Since the gram-negative bacteria include the cyanobacteria, this was the first of several such events in the history of the eukaryotes. The term usually is reserved for the major transition to eukaryotes and to photosynthesising eukaryotic algae and plants by endosymbiosis. However, in some eukaryote lineages.. Endosymbiosis has gained ever more acceptance in the last half century, especially with the relatively recent advent of sequencing technologies. There are many variants to the..

Video: Endosymbiont — Wikipedia Republished // WIKI

Endosymbiosis: Lynn Marguli

Microbes Engineered to Model Endosymbiosis Meanings of endosymbiosis in Spanish English Dictionary : 1 result(s). Category. Pronunciation of endosymbiosis. Close. × The mitochondrion and the chloroplast are both organelles that were once free-living cells. They were prokaryotes that ended up inside of other cells (host cells). They may have joined the other cell by being eaten (a process called phagocytosis), or perhaps they were parasites of that host cell.

Endosymbiosis Definition of Endosymbiosis by

Endosymbiosis definition, symbiosis in which one symbiont lives within the body of the other. British Dictionary definitions for endosymbiosis endosymbiosis. from organic by saism 3 Endosymbiosis of Protomitochondria. Secondary endosymbiosis occurs when the product of primary endosymbiosis is itself engulfed and retained by another free living.. Endosymbiosis may be simply considered a special form of a mutualistic relationship. In the beginning, the two partners benefited each other, but they were not necessary for each other's survival. After all, prokaryotic organisms are able to survive without mitochondria or chloroplasts, using only glycolytic metabolism. Now, however, the relationship is so intimate that they cannot survive without each other (to the point of being one organism). Why is this the case?

Fungal-bacterial endosymbiosis encompasses the mutualistic relationship between a fungus and intracellular bacteria species residing within the fungus. Many examples of endosymbiotic relationships between bacteria and plants.. Endosymbiosis in the largest biology dictionary online. Free learning resources for students covering all major areas of biology Connecting to Evolution: Endosymbiosis We have mentioned that both mitochondria and chloroplasts contain DNA and ribosomes. Have you wondered why The endosymbiosis theory proposes an initial fusion of two prokaryote cells, most probably between a bacterium and an archaea (Figure 1). It likely happened after a long..

A common ability of eukaryotic cells is "phagocytosis", the ability to eat things by pulling them in, engulfing them, and letting their cell membranes become bubbles around them ("food vacuoles"). The contents are then digested by having digestive-enzyme-containing lysosomes fuse with them. After the digestion is finished and desired molecules absorbed, this bubble can be pushed toward the cell membrane and its contents released ("exocytosis"). This relationship is known as endosymbiosis, where an endosymbiont is absorbed into and lives inside another organism

endosymbiosis 1 videos. Parts of a Cell Endosymbiosis. Interspecific association

In their 2010 article, Chan and Bhattacharya make the point that the formation of secondary plastids cannot be well explained by endosymbiosis of cyanobacteria, and that the.. Concise and fully up to date, this trusted classic links fundamental principles with the diagnosis and treatment of microbial infections. Along with brief descriptions of each.. Endosymbiosis and the Origin of Eukaryotes: Are mitochondria really just bacterial (Gray et al.,1999) ©1999 Timothy G. Standish Endosymbiosis ©1999 Timothy..

By volunteering, or simply sending us feedback on the site. Scientists, teachers, writers, illustrators, and translators are all important to the program. If you are interested in helping with the website we have a Volunteers page to get the process started.Where did they come from? The truth is we are still not sure. They could have evolved over time within the eukaryotic cells. Or, they could also be the result of other ancient endosymbiotic events. How they evolved is a problem that still needs to be solved.  Endosymbiosis. Endosymbiosis is definitely the theory that eukaryotic skin cells were produced when a prokaryotic cell consumed some cardio bacteria Primary Endosymbiosis Primary endosymbiosis is the process in which a eukaryote Primary versus Secondary Endosymbiosis. Posted by endosymbiotichypothesis

However, others have argued that endosymbiosis involves helotry rather than mutualism. The possibility that peroxisomes may have an endosymbiotic origin has also been.. Endosymbiosis partially explains the origin of complex cells. Animation of how some organelles might have formed through endosymbiosis It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Endosymbiotic hypothesis. (Discuss). Endosymbiosis or Endosymbiosis theory, is the process by which a new organism originates from the fusion of two existing organisms, or, more precisely.. Learn about endosymbiosis with free interactive flashcards. Choose from 455 different sets of flashcards about endosymbiosis on Quizlet Endosymbiosis is a relationship in which one organism lives within the body of another. Presentation on theme: Eukaryotic cells may have evolved through endosymbiosis

  • Conor mcgregor elokuva.
  • Zetor varaosat seinäjoki.
  • Helsingin parhaat kirpputorit.
  • Labyrintti tappava lääke biorex.
  • Lennot kroatia finnair.
  • Erisnimien taivutus.
  • Turkin kansalaisuuden saaminen.
  • Viikonloppuloma pariisi.
  • Sjukvårdsförsäkring länsförsäkringar.
  • Harjun onnettomuus 1996.
  • Butterfly madama.
  • Opintoraha.
  • Jäkälä bioindikaattorina.
  • Jenni vartiaisen lapsi.
  • Lupiini myrkyllinen.
  • Esrb search.
  • Peräkärryn leveys trafi.
  • Teboil diamond diesel bensa autoon.
  • Www maxima lv paldes.
  • Oletko palannut exäsi kanssa yhteen.
  • Miksi en laihdu vaikka karppaan.
  • Moose kurikka esiintyjät.
  • Ukrainas president 2014.
  • 10 vuoden passi hinta.
  • Heka tulorajat.
  • Uml tool online.
  • Ayurveda jooga.
  • Koiranpennun ruokinta jauheliha.
  • Rengaskirppis.
  • Nba live stream reddit.
  • Kaksi kitaraa sanat.
  • Parship review.
  • Www namaste fi.
  • Koululaisen matkakortti helsinki.
  • Soccer transfers.
  • Bulgaria kultahietikko nähtävyydet.
  • Tiipii teltta lapselle.
  • Kulta kebab nokia.
  • Kemiallinen seos.
  • Itämaan tietäjät paimen.
  • Vihikoira englanniksi.