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Good comments anony, by bring the arm back you are moving the scapula towards posterior tilt, the pressure you apply is firm enough to stabilize the pec minor (and major).@Preston – That technique works very well, though the addition of a pivot or half foam roll will increase the intensity of the stretch.Our 3D anatomical model provides you with hands-on, interactive and valuable learning tool right here on your device. To access the TeachMeAnatomy 3D Model, you must be a registered subscriber. In this post, we're talking about stretching the pectoralis minor. What is the best stretching, what We discussed some asymmetries with the scapula and talked about stretching the pectoralis minor

Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS)

Belly fat is the most harmful fat in your body, linked to many diseases. Here are 6 simple ways to lose belly fat that are supported by science.The PMi has been identified as a muscle that is implicated in scapula dysfunction and subsequent shoulder pathologies. Tightness in the muscle can restrict full scapula upward rotation, posterior tilt and elevation – movements that are required to fully allow clearance of the acromian process away from the humeral head in full elevation positions. Stretching exercises for the PMI have been offered to lengthen and reduce tone through this problematic muscle. The pectoralis minor is a thin, flat muscle found immediately underneath the pectoralis major. Innervation or stimulation comes from the clavicular head at C8 and T1 and the medial pectoral nerves

The Definitive Guide to Pectoralis Minor Anatomy, Exercises & Reha

The pectoralis minor muscle arises as 3 separate heads from the anterior surface of the 3rd, 4th, and 5th ribs near the corresponding costal cartilages, as well as the fascia overlying the adjacent intercostal muscles found in the intercostal spaces.This post came about from some of the live Q&A that we had following my webinar last week on “assessing asymmetry in the overhead athlete – does asymmetry mean pathology?” (the webinar is now recorded and available for download if you couldn’t make the live session).  We discussed some asymmetries with the scapula and talked about stretching the pectoralis minor.  I thought this would be a good topic to post on for everyone to discuss.

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Pectoralis Minor - Physiopedi

  1. PMi is a broad triangular shaped muscle that arises from the second to fifth ribs and their costal cartilages via aponeurotic slips that are continuous with the facia covering the intercostal muscles12. In an old but thorough cadaver study, Anson found that 42% of these slips are attached from the second to the fifth ribs13. But this origin may be reduced to three or even to two ribs between the second to fifth ribs.
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  3. In cases such as this, the scapula is no longer held against the ribcage - and protrudes out of the back. It is said to have a 'winged' appearance.
  4. or. Subclavius. Serratus anterior. M. pectoralis major'un klinik anatomisi. Güreş, gülle atma, disk atma, cirit, halter v.b. spor yapanlarda ağır yük taşıma işlerinde çalışanlarda..
  5. In cases such as this, the scapula is no longer held against the ribcage – and protrudes out of the back. It is said to have a ‘winged’ appearance.
  6. or is related to the serratus anterior and intercostal muscles, the ribs and several neurovascular and lymphatic structures, described below.

Pectoralis Minor

Video: Muscles of the Pectoral Region - Major - Minor - TeachMeAnatom

Pectoralis minor muscle Radiology Reference Radiopaedia

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  2. One of the actions of the serratus anterior is to 'hold' the scapula against the ribcage. If the long thoracic nerve is damaged (and the serratus anterior therefore paralysed), a specific clinical sign is produced.
  3. From here the fibres course upwards and laterally and converge to insert onto the anteromedial and superior surface of the coracoid process. The PMi is found deep to the more superficial pectoralis major muscle, while the axillary blood vessels and brachial plexus lie posterior to the muscle (see Figure 1).
  4. Muscle Anatomy of the Pectoralis Minor. Origin: Anterior surfaces of the third to fifth ribs Insertion: Via a tendon to the medial aspect of the coracoid process of the scapula

Pectoralis Minor - UW Radiolog

@Matt – That is a great addition, exhaling with the stretch. I have used this in the past as well but must admit I tend to forget about it, but yes it absolutely helps. As you and @Kory mention, breathing has to be considered, and teaching people to breathe with their diaphragm is important. Pectoralis minor syndrome (PMS) is a subset of neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) that can cause upper extremity symptoms of pain, paresthesia, and/or weakness due to compression of the.. The pectoralis minor lies underneath its larger counterpart muscle, pectoralis major. Both of these muscles form part of the anterior wall of the axilla region.In this article, we shall look at the anatomy of the muscles of the pectoral region - their attachments, actions and innervation.

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Pectoralis Minor Anatomy, Function & Diagram Body Map

Pectoralis minor muscle: Origin, insertion and action Kenhu

While the doorway stretch may have been superior, it has hard to coach and even more difficult to monitor when the person goes home and starts torquing on their shoulder.  This is a good exercise for some with adhesive capsulitis but I tend to avoid it in most patients that need pec minor stretching only.  I like the sitting stretch, I think it may be worth trying.  But I think we can improve on their supine manual stretch.  The arm should be in a different  position and I believe that proximal hand position is to far over the anterior aspect of the shoulder and not on the coracoid and pec minor.  If you look at the fibers of the pec minor, you’ll see that the muscle is orientated in a fashion that require a greater amount of elevation.  Just like any other stretch it is important to align the joint according to the position and orientation of the muscle origin and insertion.The medical information on this site is provided as an information resource only, and is not to beused or relied on for any diagnostic or treatment purposes. This information is intended for medical education, and does not create any doctor-patient relationship, and should not be used as a substitute for professional diagnosis and treatment. By visiting this site you agree to the foregoing terms and conditions. If you do not agree to the foregoing terms and conditions, you should not enter this site.In a further study, it was found that in some cadaver specimens, the PMi tendon has an ectopic insertion, that is, somewhere away from the corocoid process14. These ectopic insertions were described as being of three varieties: Target your lower pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi using the decline barbell pullover, an isolation and pull exercise i just want to make one observation regarding your "pinning' technique. The pec minor only works on the scapula (and ribs), so how are you achieving a stretch by taking the arm into elevation and horizontal abduction? Also by doing this movement there is no possible way to "pin" the pec minor as the major would eventually "pop" you off. To accurately release the minor you must "layer' through the major. As well to lengthen the scapula must be moved.

Sporting/ training activities that involve these motions in the scapula (racquet sports, swimming, weight lifting etc) can theoretically result in overuse of this muscle, especially in the presence of training errors, poor technique or a rapid increase in training load, frequency and/ or duration. Furthermore, the muscle can become habitually shortened due to postural positions such as sitting at a computer or constant reaching with one hand. These may all lead to tightness in the muscle and this will prevent full scapular motion during overhead movements as it may limit upward rotation and posterior tilt of the scapula, movements that are necessary for clearance of the acromian process away from the humeral head during arm elevation15.Notice how the medial and lateral pectoral nerves penetrate the pectoralis minor muscle to innervate it.

What is the Best Stretch for the Pectoralis Minor

[caption id="attachment_10422" align="aligncenter" width="295"] Fig 3 - Injury to the long thoracic nerve produces a winged appearance[/caption]One thing I've always wondered about the doorway stretch is how to differentiate the stretch between the pec major and pec minor.

Along with the pectoralis minor, the pectoralis major forms the anterior wall of the axilla. Nerve to upper fibers: lateral pectoral nerve, C5, 6, 7 COVID-19 has upended nearly all aspects of life as we know it. One of the most negative aspects of this upheaval is the toll the pandemic has taken on the sleep of those not infected by the virus. Reports of vivid dreams and insomnia are rampant among the general population. Athletes aren’t immune to the... MORE Pectoralis minor 释义: the smaller of the two large chest muscles that assist in movements of the shoulder and... | 意思、发音、翻译及示例 This review of five human studies on the Mediterranean diet examines its effects on weight loss, various diseases, and the risk of death.

The serratus anterior is located more laterally in the chest wall, and forms the medial border of the axilla region. So what do I do for patients at home if I don’t like the doorway stretch?  Considering this is likely a postural adaptation, I would like to see more of a low load long duration stretch of the joint.  I tend to do this mostly supine with a half foam roll, though a towel roll could substitute.  You can do this two ways, first by just laying supine with the foam roll  between your shoulder blades and allowing your shoulders to drop back and externally rotate.  The key is to relax in this position for a prolonged duration.  Secondly, I would add a more specific stretch to the pec minor by elevating the arms and repeating the hold.  I find these stretches to be safer and potentially as effective as a doorway stretch.As our knowledge has increased of the importance of posture and scapular position in normal shoulder function, the need to adequately lengthen the pectoralis minor becomes apparent.  Any restrictions in pec minor length will pull the scapula into a protracted and anterior tilted position, which has been shown to inhibit strength of the lower trapezius and decrease the width of the subacromial space.The pectoralis minor is important clinically and as a surgical landmark, due to the structures that lie below or deep to the muscle and its tendon. Running deep to the pectoralis minor muscle are the nerves and blood supply to the upper limb:Mike,I do like the pinning techniques and pec minor stretch. I find a lot of shoulder impingement patients can't tolerate the positioning, so I use the manual stretch cited in the article in the beginning.

Pectoralis Minor Images, Stock Photos & Vectors Shutterstoc

  1. @Dave – Yes, yes, and yes, but sometimes you need the doorway stretch. Tight patients after adhesive capsulitis, capsulolabral tears etc, these are the patients i use it on.
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  3. Together with other muscles of the region it produces various movements of the scapula and can be used as an accessory muscle of respiration.
  4. or (L. pectus, chest ;
  5. g those home stretches while lying supine on a foam roller allow enough space between arms and floor to appropriately perform those?

Overall 91.5 % of cadavers studied showed that the PMi arose from all or some of the ribs between the second and the fifth. Cases where the origin extended beyond the territory of the second to the fifth ribs made up but 8.5 % of the total number. Pectoralis Minor. Origin: 3rd to 5th ribs near their costal cartilages Insertion: Medial border and superior surface of coracoid process of scapula Action: Stabilizes scapula by drawing it inferiorly and.. The pectoralis minor (PMi) is a muscle found on the anterior chest wall that directly affects movement of the scapula, an important consideration for proper scapulohumeral movement (see figure 1)..

a. Place the 90° flexed arm against a wall with the hand closed into a fist. b. The shoulder angle is approximately 60-70°. This is less than the 90° proposed by Borstad and Ludewig (2006) as this author feels that this degree of shoulder abduction involves the pectoralis major too much and therefore this may become the limiting factor. The 60-70° position may be sufficient to gain enough upward scapular rotation and posterior tilt to adequately impart a stretch onto PMi. The humerus can now be horizontally extended to create scapula retraction to fully stretch the PMi. c. Slowly rotate the body away from the stretch arm to increase the retraction. d. Hold for 30-45 seconds and repeat for 3 repetitions. They are the pectoralis major, pectoralis minor, and the serratus anterior. In this article, we shall learn about The pectoralis major is the most superficial muscle in the pectoral region. It is large and fan.. Borstad, J., & Ludewig, P. (2006). Comparison of three stretches for the pectoralis minor muscle Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, 15 (3), 324-330 DOI: 10.1016/j.jse.2005.08.011@Jess – Sorry if i want clear, you definitely want to avoid neuro signs down the arm with this stretch.

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Video: Pectoralis Minor Muscle: Anatomy, Function, and Treatmen

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This is an analysis of 16 studies on vegan diets and health. All of the studies are randomized controlled trials, the gold standard of science.The pain is a result of soft tissue structures surrounding the glenohumeral joint (supraspinatus tendon, subacromial bursa, joint capsule) being pinched between two bony surfaces: the greater tubercle of the humerus and the acromion process of the scapula. Because the pectoralis minor muscle inferiorly rotates the glenoid cavity when shortened, this could limit the ability of the scapula to fully rotate in the opposite direction, i.e. superiorly, and allow for a full range of abduction. This limitation of abduction could lead to a soft tissue injury due to impingement.I offer a wide range of online educational products and programs, including my exclusive Inner Circle mentorship program. Pectoralis minor - Musculus pectoralis minor. Nerve: Medial pectoral nerves (C8, T1). Action: Stabilizes the scapula by drawing it inferiorly and anteriorly against the thoracic wall Original Editor - Esraa Mohamed Abdullzaher. Top Contributors - Ilona Malkauskaite, Esraa Mohamed Abdullzaher, Ahmed Nasr and Kim Jackson. The pectoralis minor is triangular in shape and is located under the pectoralis major, and both form the anterior wall of the axilla

ExRx.net : Pectoralis Minor

In the second part of this two-part article, Tracy Ward reviews the best-practice, home-executed loading techniques for runners seeking a return to sport following injury. Returning to running following an injury is a complex process that requires careful planning and monitoring. The most common running-related injuries are medial tibial stress syndrome, Achilles tendinopathy, plantar fasciitis,... MORE The pectoralis minor muscle is a muscle of the pectoral region lying deep to and completely covered by the pectoralis major muscle. It is an important anatomical landmark in two senses.. The pectoral region is located on the anterior chest wall. It contains four muscles that exert a force on the upper limb; the pectoralis major, pectoralis minor, serratus anterior and subclavius.Mike is the co-owner of Champion Physical Therapy and Performance, located just outside Boston, MA. We help people feel, move, and perform better.

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@Mike – I'd be cautious with any patients who experience tingling down the arm with your stretch. Remember that the brachial nerves run directly underneath the pec minor, and the stretch position you're using could potentially cause neural tension symptoms. Tingling down the arm would not immediately indicate too much stress on the anterior shoulder. An easy fix would be to flex the elbow in order to put the nerves on more slack.This review looks at five studies on the paleo diet, examining its effects on body weight and various health markers.Does cholesterol matter? Is agave healthy? This article looks at 10 common myths and misconceptions in the alternative nutrition community.With the doorway stretch I have the patient maximally exhale holding the exhale to get a great pec minor stretch. It attaches to ribs 3, 4 and 5 so if they depress you will get more lengthening. Try it and you'll feel it! I do like the pinning method. Maybe the best way would be to pin it and breath out maximally.Also, not sure if anyone watched ESPN yesterday, but there was a piece on Drew Brees injury, with an interview with his surgeon Dr James Andrews. Andrews spoke highly of physical therapy, in particular his therapist Kevin Wilk. Good to see positive press about PT, especially after that Ny Times article you posted on here a few weeks back!!!!!!

Other articles where Pectoralis minor is discussed: pectoralis muscle: The pectoralis minor lies The human pectoralis minor muscle has forsaken its attachment to the humerus, the long bone of.. K. Saladin, R. McFarland, C. Gan, and H. Cushman, 2018. Essentials Of Anatomy & Physiology: The Unity Of Form And Function. 8th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Education.If your take on meditation is that it's boring or too "new age," then read this. One man shares how - and why - he learned to meditate even though he…

Pectoralis Minor - Anatomy - Orthobullet

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Chris Mallac outlines the anatomy and biomechanics of pectoralis minor, how tightness can create injuries to the shoulder, and also effective stretching and loosening procedures for this muscle… Find pectoralis minor stock images in HD and millions of other royalty-free stock photos, illustrations and vectors in the Shutterstock collection. Thousands of new, high-quality pictures added every day

Pectoralis Minor Muscle - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

Pectoralis Minor Muscle. Related terms: Latissimus Dorsi Muscle. The medial pectoral nerves arise from the eighth cervical nerve and the first thoracic nerves (C8-T1) And one last question, if I may…..with regards to the doorway stretch, is that always going to place stress on the anterior capsule, even if the person has the shoulder blades fully retracted and depressed, or does it become stressful if people get a bit sloppy/lax with it and are otherwise occupied instead of focusing on maintaining a certain position?The pectoralis minor (PMi) is a muscle found on the anterior chest wall that directly affects movement of the scapula, an important consideration for proper scapulohumeral movement (see figure 1). It has been suggested that tightness in the PMi can adversely affect scapula function1 2 3, specifically in limiting upward rotation, external rotation, and posterior tilting4, leading to shoulder injuries such as impingement syndrome5 6, rotator cuff pathologies7 8, internal impingement9, glenohumeral instability10 and adhesive capsulitis11. The pectoralis minor is a thin muscle located near the top of the chest. It is situated close to the It inserts at the coracoids process of the scapula and its innervation is via the medial pectoral nerve

SubscribeHuman body Muscular SystemPectoralis minorPectoralis minorMedically reviewed by Healthline's Medical Network on March 18, 2015 The pectoralis minor is a thin, flat muscle found immediately underneath the pectoralis major. This is the smaller of the two pectoral muscles, or muscles of the chest. This muscle extends from three origins on the third, fourth, and fifth ribs on each side of the ribcage to the coracoid process (a small, hook-like structure) of the scapula, or shoulder blade. The origins of the muscle are all lateral to the costal cartilages. The primary actions of this muscle include the stabilization, depression, abduction or protraction, upward tilt, and downward rotation of the scapula. When the ribs are immobilized, this muscle brings the scapula forward, and when the scapula is fixed, it lifts up the rib cage. There are two parallel pectoralis minor muscles, one on each side of the sternum. Both pectoralis muscles work with the serratus anterior muscles to create a full range of movement for the scapula. The pectoralis minor muscle receives its arterial supply from the thoracoacromial trunk's pectoral branch. Innervation or stimulation comes from the clavicular head at C8 and T1 and the medial pectoral nerves.You’ll know if you are doing this stretch right but asking the person what they feel – nice stretch in the pec versus a stretch in anterior shoulder.  Sometimes they’ll even experience a tingle down their arm or in their hand, which is an obvious sign you are stretching too much of the anterior shoulder.  I should also mention, it takes 2-3 sessions for the patient to get used to this stretch as you finger tips in this area are not always comfortable.  Resist the urge to broaden you contact spot and use the palm of your hand etc, it never works as well.

Der Musculus pectoralis minor wird ebenfalls von den nervi pectorales medialis und lateralis versorgt. Klinisch bemerkbar macht sich der kleine Brustmuskel, wenn er nicht mehr funktioniert Due to its attachment on the coracoid process, a shortening of PMi will lead to anterior tilting and downward rotation of the scapula, and prevent full upward rotation, elevation and posterior tilting of the scapula, which is required for full shoulder elevation. Sahrmann (2002) has described a number of clinical syndromes that are associated with a shortening of PMi16. These include; thoracic outlet syndrome, scapular winging and tilting syndrome, scapular abduction syndrome, scapular depression syndrome and scapular downward rotation syndrome. Bhatia et al (2007) proposed an injury defined as an insertional tendinopathy of PMi caused by bench pressing and called this ‘Bench Presser’s Shoulder’17. They argue it is a previously undescribed cause of shoulder pain in weightlifters/ sportsmen.Notice in these two photos below that by just adding this “pinning” of the pec minor I completely change stretch and take the strain of the anterior shoulder.  In this position it is also pretty easy to utilize some MET and ART techniques as well, both of which I have found effective.  The perspective is a bit hard to tell from the angle, but note that on the pinning stretch, the arm is about even with the table (perpendicular to the ground) to just barely past the table, without the pinning it dips about 20 degrees past the table:

We strip away the scientific jargon and deliver you easy-to-follow training exercises, nutrition tips, psychological strategies and recovery programmes and exercises in plain English. Grounded on academic literature and research, validated by experts, and trusted by more than 1 million users. Read more. Another thing worth mentioning is the thoracic pivot, which is a great tool that is even better than the half foam roll.  It is more comfortable and a more specific curve to meet your thoracic spine.  I use one and love it.  The draw back is that it is more expensive that a foam roll.  But I also have the cervical pivots and use them all the time on patients and myself to work on posture and reduce tension headaches, shoulder pain, and scapular dyskinesis.  Don’t buy them from OPTP, they are 25% less on Amazon.[caption id="attachment_15721" align="aligncenter" width="648"] Fig 1 - The sternal and clavicular heads of the pectoralis major.[/caption][caption id="attachment_15722" align="aligncenter" width="403"] Fig 2 - The serratus anterior and pectoralis minor muscles.[/caption]

The pectoralis major is the most superficial muscle in the pectoral region. It is large and fan shaped, and is composed of a sternal head and a clavicular head:The subclavius is small muscle, which is located directly underneath the clavicle, running horizontally. It affords some minor protection to the underlying neurovascular structures (e.g in cases of clavicular fracture or other trauma).Full abduction of the arm (180 degrees) is a result of movement occurring at two ‘joints’. One hundred and twenty degrees of abduction occurs at the glenohumeral joint. The remaining 60 degrees is a result of the scapula rotating on the posterior thoracic wall (or scapulothoracic joint). If this 60 degrees of rotation is limited or lost completely, moving the shoulder into full abduction can cause discomfort or pain.Once you've finished editing, click 'Submit for Review', and your changes will be reviewed by our team before publishing on the site.

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The pectoralis major and minor muscles are innervated by the lateral and medial pectoral nerves Penetrates the deep surface of the pectoralis minor to innervate this muscle before penetrating it to.. Trigger points in the PMi can also create pain in and around the shoulder (see figure 3). The quintessential reference point for anything myofascial and trigger point related is Simons and Travell (1999)18. They describe a pain referral pattern of PMi as pain mostly over the anterior deltoid area and spilling over into the subclavicular and pectoral regions. The pain may extend down the medial aspect of the arm, forearm, and into the ulnar distribution of the hand and the third, fourth, and fifth digits. Lawson et al (2011) presented a case study on how PMi trigger points created pain similar to angina in a cross country skier19.In 2009 a cadaver study identified an effective pec minor stretch. “Based on our findings, scapular retraction at 30 degrees of flexion is the stretching technique that causes the greatest change in the length of the PMi.” Lengthening of the Pectoralis Minor Muscle During Passive Shoulder Motions and Stretching Techniques: A Cadaveric Biomechanical Study. Takayuki Muraki, Mitsuhiro Aoki, Tomoki Izumi, Misaki Fujii, Egi Hidaka and Shigenori Miyamoto. Physical Therapy April 2009 vol. 89 no. 4. Pgs 333-341. Published online before print 26 February 2009doi: 10.2522/ptj.20080248Long thoracic nerve palsy is thought to most commonly occur from traction injuries, where the upper limb is stretched violently.There are a lot of theorized negative effects of a tight pec minor, mostly related to the position of the scapula:

I think we can do better using manual stretching in addition to the postural exercises I recommend above for at home.  To stretch the pec minor, I have settled on a manual supine technique the combines aligning the shoulder in the correction orientation of the pectoralis minor muscle fibers and stabilizing the muscle by the coracoid.  Notice I said stabilizing the muscle.  I place a broad four finger grip deep into the pec minor just off from the coracoid.  But it is important to note that I do this with the arm/pec in a loose position.  You need to think of it as stabilizing, or “pinning” as I call it, the pec minor down.  What you’ll find is that you will obtain a stretch in the pec (not the anterior shoulder) and you wont be able to bring the arm far down past the plane of the table.[…] attaches to the chest and then holds your arm and pulls up then down and back (see image from an article by Mike Reinhold, PT). You have to do this several times per session and a few times per day which makes it impractical […]2. Pivots – the photo above shows the pivot from top to bottom, the wider side is on top. For cervical i do use them with decent success, i just have th patient relax in one of them for 5-10 minutes as part of their treatment (while you are working on someone else). This helps with tension and holds them in good posture, then you can get better manual work done. This is a good home tool for the patient to relax more, reduce stress and tension. I use them myself s decent amount, i tend to get cervicogenic headaches.The overabundance of sedentary activities that negatively affect good upper body posture can be detrimental to the proper functioning of the pectoralis minor muscle. Recall that this muscle attaches to, and acts on, the scapula via the coracoid process, pulling it forward and inferiorly. It also rotates the glenoid cavity inferiorly and causes protraction of the scapula. Postures in which there are extended periods of scapular protraction will cause the pectoralis minor muscle to shorten, keeping the scapula in that undesirable position. This can lead to the implication of pectoralis minor in a number of clinical conditions.Mark, probably tough to do, but one could argue that you could into more elevation for pec minor. Tough one, though, you are are right.

Love the topic… I am a 1st year DPT student, and my program has recommended a pec minor stretch involving the pt supine with arms rested at sides. The PT crosses their arms and stands over the pt, and imposes a posterior/superior pressure over the coracoid processes to initiate the stretch. Thoughts on this? Has anyone used this technique? Would this increase or decrease the pressure on the anterior capsule that you mention in your post?This syndrome is the result of compression or irritation of the neurovascular structures that serve the upper limb. These include the brachial plexus and the blood vessels running to and from the arm (the subclavian and axillary arteries and veins). Historically, TOS has been associated with compression of these structures in three regions:The main anterior relation is the pectoralis major muscle, found superficial to the pectoralis minor and almost completely covering it. Found between the two muscles are the lateral pectoral nerve and the pectoral branches of the thoracoacromial artery. Located deep to the pectoralis major and its covering fascia is another connective tissue layer known as clavicopectoral fascia. It covers the pectoralis minor, superior to it forming a fascial layer known as the costocoracoid membrane and inferior to it forming the suspensory ligament of the axilla, continuous with the axillary fascia. Together the pectoralis minor and minor, as well as their associated fascia, form the anterior wall of the axilla.There is some evidence behind stretching.  A study by Borstad in JSES in 2006 compared three different techniques of stretching and found that they all produced changes in muscle length, but that the doorway stretch was superior:I like to sometimes get into the origin region on the rib attachments of the pec minor and mobilize/stretch from that end some as well. Utilizing the same "pinning" idea. I agree with Matt about utilizing breathing with the stretch to get the ribs to move. I find often times these patients don't expand into their ribs very well with their breathes. Also shallow breathing and/or upper respiratory/accessory breathing noted with some of them. (I work more with injuried workers and middle age poppulation – not high end athletes, so may not see the same in the higher end athlete.)

This is a review of orthorexia and its health effects. Orthorexia nervosa is an eating disorder that involves a harmful obsession with healthy eating.a. Using any manner of trigger point release devices (in this example two taped tennis balls are being used), place it against the upper chest below the clavicle and slightly medial to the anterior deltoid. This ‘triangle’ of tissue is where the corocoid process and PMi can be found. b. Place the arm on the releasing side into external rotation. This encourages scapula retraction. c. Gently lean into the release device, searching for any areas of tightness and tension. Hold for 20-30 seconds, remove and move the device elsewhere at repeat.As athletes return to sport and training after lockdown and isolation, there is concern about their susceptibility to injury. Jason Tee looks at the evidence for the validity of the acute:chronic workload ratio theory. Is it overhyped, and is there a better way of mapping out the progression in training load? One of the most... MOREAlso, if someone is to perform them for extended periods of time, would it be at all desirable to let them sink into the position as far as the arms will comfortably go and then place some support under the arms to allow them to really relax and hold the position (possibly lowering it a bit as things improve)?Meanwhile, Fitzgerald (2012) presented a case whereby tightness in PMi can also be a causative factor in thoracic outlet syndrome20. Thoracic outlet syndrome is the result of compression or irritation of neurovascular bundles as they pass from the lower cervical spine into the arm, via the axilla. If the PMi muscle is involved, the patient may present with chest pain, along with pain and paraesthesia into the arm. The symptoms were reproduced on both digital pressure over the PMi muscle and on provocative testing for thoracic outlet syndrome. Treatment therefore should focus on the PMi muscle.

Mike, Thanks for the information about pec minor stretching – very informative. With regards to the thoracic pivot, do you align the wider part cranially or caudally? Being new to your site, have you posted previously on how you use the cervical pivots for posture, tension headaches, and shoulder problems. If not, I would love for you to write about that sometime. Thank you.Chris Mallac investigates the causes, diagnosis, and management of navicular stress fractures in athletes. First described by Towne and colleagues in 1970(1), stress fractures of the navicular bone are uncommon in the general population. However, male athletes in their mid-20s participating in sports such as sprinting, middle distance running, hurdling, and basketball are more at... MORE– Assessment and Treatment of Shoulder Impingement – Special Tests for Rotator Cuff Tears – Keys to Shoulder Instability Rehabilitation – Clinical Exam of SLAP Tears – Keys to ACL Rehabilitation – Assessing and Treating a Loss of Knee Extension ROM – Should we Still be Using Rehabilitation Protocols? – Recommendations for the Best IASTM Tools – The Best Self Myofascial Release Tools – Simple Thoracic Mobility Drills – Ankle Mobility Drills to Improve DorsiflexionIn this third installment in a series relating to COVID-19, Trevor Langford focuses on how to maintain an athlete’s mental wellbeing, focus, and motivation during this unprecedented time. Global lockdown and social distancing have forced athletes the world over to adapt their daily routines. With competitions canceled or postponed, it is hard for athletes and... MOREThe pectoralis minor muscle is a muscle of the pectoral region lying deep to and completely covered by the pectoralis major muscle. 

a. Have the subject lie length wise on a foam roller. This ensures the scapulae are free to retract and not fixed by the floor. b. Rest the hand in supination/external rotation on the floor at 30-45° abduction. c. The trainer/therapist can impart a force onto the corocoid process to create a retraction, posterior tilt, upward rotation and elevation movement. These four movements are opposite to what the PMi does when it contracts. d. Notice the angle of the stretching arm – it is angled to push the corocoid not only into retraction, but also into upward rotation and elevation. e. To gain extra stretch, the patient breathes in deeply and then the stretch is applied during expiration. f. Hold the stretch for 5 seconds and release, allowing the patient to breathe in again and repeat. This can be repeated for 10-15 breaths.Over 20 studies have compared low carb and low fat diets. Low carb diets consistently lead to better results, both for weight loss and common risk…The pectoralis minor muscle is one of the most superficial muscles on the anterior aspect of the chest or thoracic wall, located deep only to the pectoralis major muscle. It is one of the anterior axioappendicular (thoracoappendicular) muscles, together with the pectoralis major, subclavius and serratus anterior.

We also use different external services like Google Webfonts, Google Maps, and external Video providers. Since these providers may collect personal data like your IP address we allow you to block them here. Please be aware that this might heavily reduce the functionality and appearance of our site. Changes will take effect once you reload the page.As athletes return to sport and training after lockdown and isolation due to COVID-19, they will be more susceptible to tendon injury as they experience spikes in their training load. While guidance from a physio will help them adjust their training schedules, they will likely need to change their nutrition as wel MORE 3 Heads. Also see. Pectoralis Major Hi Mike, those images dont show up anymore. Can you please upload them again, I have Pec Minor and shoulder impingement and any stretch which stretches P minor but doesnt put stress on the shoulder joint would be very helpful. “I would honestly say that Kenhub cut my study time in half.” – Read more. Kim Bengochea, Regis University, Denver

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